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Rapid detection of chromosomal translocation and precise breakpoint characterization in acute myeloid leukemia by nanopore long-read sequencing


Date: 23rd August 2019 | Source: Cancer Genetics

Authors: Chun Hang Au, Dona N. Ho, Beca B. K. Ip, Thomas S. K. Wan, Margaret H. L. Ng, Edmond K. W. Chiu, Tsun Leung Chan, Edmond S. K. Ma.

Detection of chromosomal translocation is a key component in diagnosis and management of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Targeted RNA next-generation sequencing (NGS) is emerging as a powerful and clinically practical tool, but it depends on expression of RNA transcript from the underlying DNA translocation. Here, we show the clinical utility of nanopore long-read sequencing in rapidly detecting DNA translocation with exact breakpoints. In a newly diagnosed patient with AML, conventional karyotyping showed translocation t(10;12)(q22;p13) but RNA NGS detected NUP98-NSD1 fusion transcripts from a known cryptic translocation t(5;11)(q35;p15). Rapid PCR-free nanopore whole-genome sequencing yielded a 26,194 bp sequencing read and revealed the t(10;12) breakpoint to be DUSP13 and GRIN2B in head-to-head configuration. This translocation was then classified as a passenger structural variant. The sequencing also yielded a 20,709 bp sequencing read and revealed the t(5;11) breakpoint of the driver NUP98-NSD1 fusion. The identified DNA breakpoints also served as markers for molecular monitoring, in addition to fusion transcript expression by digital PCR and sequence mutations by NGS. We illustrate that third-generation nanopore sequencing is a simple and low-cost workflow for DNA translocation detection.

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