Chromosome-scale assembly and analysis of biomass crop Miscanthus lutarioriparius genome

Miscanthus, a rhizomatous perennial plant, has great potential for bioenergy production for its high biomass and stress tolerance. We report a chromosome-scale assembly of Miscanthus lutarioriparius genome by combining Oxford Nanopore sequencing and Hi-C technologies. The 2.07-Gb assembly covers 96.64% of the genome, with contig N50 of 1.71 Mb. The centromere and telomere sequences are assembled for all 19 chromosomes and chromosome 10, respectively. Allotetraploid origin of the M. lutarioriparius is confirmed using centromeric satellite repeats.

The tetraploid genome structure and several chromosomal rearrangements relative to sorghum are clearly demonstrated. Tandem duplicate genes of M. lutarioriparius are functional enriched not only in terms related to stress response, but cell wall biosynthesis. Gene families related to disease resistance, cell wall biosynthesis and metal ion transport are greatly expanded and evolved. The expansion of these families may be an important genomic basis for the enhancement of remarkable traits of M. lutarioriparius.

Authors: Jiashun Miao, Qi Feng, Yan Li, Qiang Zhao, Congcong Zhou, Hengyun Lu, Danlin Fan, Juan Yan, Yiqi Lu, Qilin Tian, Wenjun Li, Qijun Weng, Lei Zhang, Yan Zhao, Tao Huang, Laigeng Li, Xuehui Huang, Tao Sang, Bin Han