Chromosome-level genome assembly of the hard-shelled mussel Mytilus coruscus, a widely distributed species from the temperate areas of East Asia


The hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus) is widely distributed in the temperate seas of East Asia and is an important commercial bivalve in China. Chromosome-level genome information of this species will contribute not only to the development of hard-shelled mussel genetic breeding but also to studies on larval ecology, climate change biology, marine biology, aquaculture, biofouling, and antifouling.


We applied a combination of Illumina sequencing, Oxford Nanopore Technologies sequencing, and high-throughput chromosome conformation capture technologies to construct a chromosome-level genome of the hard-shelled mussel, with a total length of 1.57 Gb and a median contig length of 1.49 Mb. Approximately 90.9% of the assemblies were anchored to 14 linkage groups. We assayed the genome completeness using BUSCO. In the metazoan dataset, the present assemblies have 89.4% complete, 1.9% incomplete, and 8.7% missing BUSCOs. Gene modeling enabled the annotation of 37,478 protein-coding genes and 26,917 non-coding RNA loci. Phylogenetic analysis showed that M. coruscus is the sister taxon to the clade including Modiolus philippinarum and Bathymodiolus platifrons. Conserved chromosome synteny was observed between hard-shelled mussel and king scallop, suggesting that this is shared ancestrally. Transcriptomic profiling indicated that the pathways of catecholamine biosynthesis and adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes might be involved in metamorphosis.


The chromosome-level assembly of the hard-shelled mussel genome will provide novel insights into mussel genome evolution and serve as a fundamental platform for studies regarding the planktonic-sessile transition, genetic diversity, and genomic breeding of this bivalve.

Authors: Jin-Long Yang, Dan-Dan Feng, Jie Liu, Jia-Kang Xu, Ke Chen, Yi-Feng Li, You-Ting Zhu, Xiao Liang, Ying Lu