Chromosome-level de novo assembly of Coprinopsis cinerea A43mut B43mut pab1-1 #326 and genetic variant identification of mutants using Nanopore MinION sequencing

The homokaryotic Coprinopsis cinerea strain A43mut B43mut pab1-1 #326 is a widely used experimental model for developmental studies in mushroom-forming fungi. It can grow on defined artificial media and complete the whole lifecycle within two weeks.

The mutations in mating type factors A and B result in the special feature of clamp formation and fruiting without mating. This feature allows investigations and manipulations with a homokaryotic genetic background. Current genome assembly of strain #326 was based on short-read sequencing data and was highly fragmented, leading to the bias in gene annotation and downstream analyses.

Here, we report a chromosome-level genome assembly of strain #326. Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT) MinION sequencing was used to get long reads. Illumina short reads was used to polish the sequences. A combined assembly yield 13 chromosomes and a mitochondrial genome as individual scaffolds. The assembly has 15,250 annotated genes with a high synteny with the C. cinerea strain Okayama-7 #130. This assembly has great improvement on contiguity and annotations. It is a suitable reference for further genomic studies, especially for the genetic, genomic and transcriptomic analyses in ONT long reads. Single nucleotide variants and structural variants in six mutagenized and cisplatin-screened mutants could be identified and validated. A 66 bp deletion in Ras GTPase-activating protein (RasGAP) was found in all mutants.

To make a better use of ONT sequencing platform, we modified a high-molecular-weight genomic DNA isolation protocol based on magnetic beads for filamentous fungi. This study showed the use of MinION to construct a fungal reference genome and to perform downstream studies in an individual laboratory. An experimental workflow was proposed, from DNA isolation and whole genome sequencing, to genome assembly and variant calling. Our results provided solutions and parameters for fungal genomic analysis on MinION sequencing platform.

Authors: Yichun Xie, Yiyi Zhong, Jinhui Chang, Hoi Shan Kwana