Long-read sequencing identifies GGC repeat expansion in human-specific NOTCH2NLC associated with neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease
Date: 9th January 2019 | Source: BioRxiv
Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by eosinophilic hyaline intranuclear inclusions in neuronal and somatic cells. The wide range of clinical manifestations in NIID makes ante-mortem diagnosis difficult, although many NIID cases have been diagnosed by skin biopsy. Most cases of NIID are sporadic, but several familial cases are known. Using a large NIID family, we conducted linkage mapping, found a 58.1-Mb linked-region at 1p22.1-q21.3 with a maximum logarithm of odds (LOD) score of 4.21, and successfully identified a GGC repeat expansion in the 5' portion of NOTCH2NLC in all affected members by long-read sequencing, but not in unaffected members. We further found the similar expansions in additional 8 unrelated families with NIID as well as 39 sporadic NIID patients. Repeat-primed PCR consistently detected the GGC repeat expansion in all the familial and sporadic patients diagnosed by skin biopsy, but never in unaffected family members nor 200 controls. This shows that pathogenic changes in a human-specific gene evolutionarily generated by segmental duplication indeed cause a human disease.